Computational models enable the calculation of quantities that are impractical or impossible to measure and the prediction of physiological changes due to interventions. In order to be useful, cardiovascular models must be both rooted in physical principles and designed such that measured or otherwise desired features of the cardiovascular system are reproduced. The former requirement has motivated the development of image-based anatomic models, patient-specific inflow boundary conditions, deformable vascular walls, outflow boundary conditions that represent the influence of the downstream circulation, and multiscale models. The development of approaches to address the latter requirement, reproducing desired features of the circulation, is a critical area of modeling research that has received comparatively little attention.

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