Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients are identified by a lesion of the tricuspid aortic leaflets in which only two ‘functional’ leaflets are visibly present. This lesion occurs in 0.5–2% of the population and is accompanied by a significant incidence of morbidity and mortality related to aortic valve dysfunction, aortic dilatation, aortic aneurysm, and aortic dissection.  The pathogenesis of the malformation has been postulated to be the result of a congenital or inflammatorily-mediated fusion of two of the three aortic leaflets. In addition, BAV is accompanied by a variety of heterogeneous complications and is considered a complex disease with many cofactors, the importance of which continue to be debated. Among these cofactors, the most commonly identified vascular manifestation is aortic dilatation.  There are two hypotheses for this manifestation: the first postulates the coexistence of BAV and genetically-based aortic fragility; the second proposes that BAV morphology and incomplete valve opening induces hemodynamic forces that influence structure and function at the aorta.
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Measurement of Valve Lesion Morphology and Aorta / Flow-Jet Patterns in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Patients
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Barker, AJ, Lanning, C, & Shandas, R. "Measurement of Valve Lesion Morphology and Aorta / Flow-Jet Patterns in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Patients." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 1011-1012. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-206126
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