Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (Echo PIV), a novel opaque flow velocimetry technique developed in our laboratory, has been shown to be an effective 2-D flow measurement velocimetry method in prior studies for both steady and pulsatile flow conditions [1,2]. However, certain limitations remained in the first-generation system. These include inconsistent spatial resolution caused by the phased array transducer, and the relatively low frame rate (i.e., lower temporal resolution) [2]. To overcome these limitations, we developed a second-generation Echo PIV system with a custom-designed linear array transducer (5–14MHz, center frequency 10MHz) and customized post-processing of backscatter data. In vascular applications, the new system can provide frame rates up to 1428 fps (temporal resolution of 0.7 ms). The transducer has a consistent axial resolution of 150um, which brings a maximal velocity field resolution around 500um in axial direction. An ECG module was also integrated to enable the capture of ensemble data over the cardiac cycle.

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