Genetically modified mice provide a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of human cardiovascular diseases like human atherosclerosis [1]. Numerous mouse strains are available today with phenotypes relevant to human cardiovascular diseases [1,2]. These mouse strains have prompted the development of techniques for assessing the cardiovascular function and morphology of living mice. Recently, several imaging techniques have been emerged as promising non-invasive imaging modalities, such as electron-beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, optical coherent tomography, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) [3,4]. Although these systems are capable of detecting anatomic and functional information, they may not be suitable to image mouse heart vasculatures. The small size and rapid movement of mouse hearts require systems acquiring images using temporal resolution of less than 10 ms with spatial resolution of 100 μm or less [4]. However, in mice, which have extremely small coronary arteries and high heart rates, the coronary circulation constitutes a great challenge for these available imaging techniques.

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