The primary goal of tissue engineering is to develop a biological, mechanically-robust, and anti-thrombogenic vascular graft to replace diseased or damaged tissue and organs [1]. For example, researchers have incorporated smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into extracellular matrix to provide a living, functional conduits with the intended purpose of replacing SMC-containing tubes, such as the blood vessel, urethra, esophagus, intestine, etc. Although the preferred source is autologous cells to avoid immunological rejection, adult SMCs are difficult to obtain and expand. An alternative source of autologous cells could be bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs), which differentiate toward mesenchymal and hematopoietic lineages [2].

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