Current fracture risk estimates for the spine are based on average measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in the vertebral centrum. However, these measures of BMD explain only ∼60% of the variance in vertebral strength  and do not discriminate well between fracture and non-fracture cohorts . These limitations of average BMD are likely due to the heterogeneous distribution of bone tissue throughout the vertebra. The density and architecture of vertebral trabecular bone vary as a function of position in the centrum ; moreover, these spatial variations have been shown to vary substantially among individuals and with age .
- Bioengineering Division
Predictions of Vertebral Strength From Quantitative Measures of the Intra-Vertebral Heterogeneity in Density
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Hussein, AA, Mason, ZD, & Morgan, EF. "Predictions of Vertebral Strength From Quantitative Measures of the Intra-Vertebral Heterogeneity in Density." Proceedings of the ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Marco Island, Florida, USA. June 25–29, 2008. pp. 653-654. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2008-193105
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