Instability of the lumbar spine is a significant cause of pain and loss of function in the human population. There are a multitude of causes for a reduction or complete loss of stability of the lumbar spine. These causes include but are not limited to degenerative disc disease, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, genetic and growth abnormalities, and ligament laxity. Regardless of the cause, instability of the spine often leads to discomfort and loss of function. When conservative options have been exhausted, the surgeon in consultation with the patient may opt for surgical treatment of the unstable segment.

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