Cardiac function is influenced by the three-dimensional organization of the myocardial fibers. Cardiac fibers are arranged in a circumferential, longitudinal, and a sheet-like fashion, forming counter-wound helices from the base to the apex of the heart. This fiber organization is responsible for the delicate balance between mechanical and electrical functioning of the heart. When electrical disruption of this coordinated function occurs, this is associated with cardiac arrhythmias which may lead to more serious conditions like ventricular fibrillation.

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