In the applications of bioheat transfer, cells and tissues are exposed to various stresses from high and low temperatures, freezing, drying and chemicals, and resultantly they are damaged and dead However, the mechanism of cell damage and death due to the stresses is not sufficiently understood quantitatively. Also, mathematical model of cell damage and death for the prediction of cell lethality and viability is undeveloped. The prediction could contribute to design and optimization of the relevant devises and processes.

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