Congenital cardiovascular defects are the leading cause of death among live births [1]. These defects involve the interior walls of the heart, valves, arteries, and veins and change the normal flow of blood through the heart and into the systemic system. Fortunately, several options exist for the more than 35,000 children born with congenital heart disease. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) currently hold the most promise for bridge-to-transplant treatment; however, a major problem for these devices is thrombus formation and deposition.

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