In recent years, mild or moderate hypothermia has been proposed for clinical use as an adjunct for achieving protection from cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Clinically feasible brain cooling methods include a head hood or helmet with chemical cooling, head immersion in ice water, nasophyaryngeal cooling after tracheal intubations, etc. Under normal conditions it has been shown that temperature along the common and internal carotid arteries does not change significantly due to relatively small heat exchange surface of the blood vessels and high flow velocity of the blood. However, when the neck and brain surfaces are cold due to wearing external cooling garments, heat loss from the common and internal carotid arteries may result in arterial blood cooling before the blood enters the Circle of Willis [Zhu 2000].

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