Implantable devices in direct contact with flowing blood, for example, coronary stents, continuous flow and pulsatile flow ventricular assist devices, prosthetic heart valves, catheters and cannulae are currently being used to treat many medical conditions. However, thromboembolism and the attendant risk for ischemic stroke remains an impediment for all these devices. A prudent approach to developing these devices in a cost effective manner should include optimization for thrombogenic performance before going into expensive preclinical and clinical trials.

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