Since Blix noted that force varies with muscle length [1], many investigators have worked to characterize the passive length-tension properties of skeletal muscle in the tissue’s fiber direction [2]. However, few reports have examined the properties of muscle in either transverse extension or in longitudinal shear [3–4]. Material properties in these three directions are needed to fully characterize computational models, which generally describe muscle as being transversely isotropic, hyperelastic, and isovolumetric [3–6]. Further, previous studies reporting tri-planar material properties indicate that muscle tissue is stiffer in the transverse direction compared to the longitudinal direction [3–4]. This counters conventional notions of transversely isotropic materials, which are generally stiffer in the fiber direction.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.