The glenohumeral joint is the most dislocated major joint in the body and the axillary pouch of the glenohumeral capsule is the primary stabilizer at the extreme ranges of external rotation.  Procedures to repair the capsule following dislocation result in 12–25% of patients still experiencing pain and instability.  Studies performing clinical exams have found inconsistent data on differences between males and females. Increased laxity in the glenohumeral joint of females has been found as well as overall hypermobility when compared to males. [3,4] However, others have found no differences in overall joint stiffness between genders.  These findings suggest that a difference in the mechanical properties might exist between genders. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of gender on the mechanical properties of the axillary pouch during tensile loading. A combined experimental and computational approach was used to evaluate the properties of the tissue. This data could potentially be utilized to improve surgical procedures and necessitate gender-specific repair techniques.
Effects of Gender on the Mechanical Properties of the Glenohumeral Capsule: Implications for Surgical Repair Techniques
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Rainis, EJ, Voycheck, CA, Timcho, EA, McMahon, PJ, & Debski, RE. "Effects of Gender on the Mechanical Properties of the Glenohumeral Capsule: Implications for Surgical Repair Techniques." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Keystone, Colorado, USA. June 20–24, 2007. pp. 911-912. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2007-176345
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