Self-assembly of β-sheet forming peptides into filaments has drawn great interests in biomedical applications [1,2]; Hydrogels formed by filaments self-assembled from de novo designed peptides possess potential applications for cell culture scaffolds [3]. On the other hand, peptides derived from amyloidogenic proteins in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s also form similar β-sheet filaments in vitro. They share little sequence homology, yet filaments formed by these self-assembling peptides commonly have the cross-β structure, the key signature of the amyloid fibril. Detailed structural information of the self-assembled β-sheet filaments has been limited partly due to the difficulty in preparing ordered filament samples, and it has been only recently that solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and x-ray techniques have revealed their molecular structure at the atomic level [4,5]. Although molecular structures of amyloid fibrils are becoming available, physical principles governing their self-assembly and the properties of the filaments are not well-understood, for which computational as well as theoretical approaches are desirable [6].

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