The clinical efficacy of vascular stents is evaluated through long and expensive trials. Pre-clinical studies, where stents are tested in animal models, further contribute to the expense of bringing new devices to market. The purpose of pre-clinical studies is to assess stent induced thrombus formation, inflammatory response, neointimal hyperplasia, and late thromobosis. Whether the trial is pre-clinical or clinical, the biologic responses to stents are, in large part, due to the surface and structural characteristics of the stent being tested.

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