Over seven million Americans suffer from chronic venous insufficiency, secondary to valvular dysfunction, with few effective clinical therapies. Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is a painful and debilitating disease that affects the superficial and deep veins of the legs. After deep venous thrombosis, the vein valves leaflets become adherent, fold over, or are absorbed into the vein wall. Incompetent valves allow reflux and subsequent pooling of blood in the legs. The resultant CVI causes severe leg edema, skin breakdown, and possible gangrene. Current clinical therapies are only modestly effective and include vein stripping and ligation, valvuloplasty, vein valve transposition, and vein valve transplantation. Valvuloplasty is the most definitive of CVI treatment, though this surgical treatment is rarely performed due to its difficulty. The quest for a better solution continues.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.