Numerical simulation of blood flow in arteries has important applications in disciplines such as surgical planning, medical device design, and disease research. However, there are many challenges involved in accurately characterizing the motion of blood within the arterial system. First, computational models can require finite element meshes with several million degrees of freedom. Furthermore, surgical planning applications require solving these problems as quickly as possible. Second, the boundary conditions must faithfully represent the flow and pressure characteristics of the vascular trees external to the computational model. These conditions must also be consistent with the intrinsic wave propagation phenomena within the model. Third, the fluid-solid interactions between blood, vessel wall and surrounding tissues and organs need to be modeled. In order to represent the pulsation of blood within arteries, one must consider the variations in arterial compliance (especially significant when dealing with large models), points of attachment of the vessels to the surrounding organs, etc. Prior vascular fluid-structure interaction models have considered uniform vessel wall properties and a zero pressure reference state.

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