This paper describes a significant ongoing effort by our research group to develop a functional electrical stimulation-based neuroprosthesis capable of restoring essential arm and hand function to individuals with high cervical (C1-C4) spinal cord injury, a condition referred to as high tetraplegia. These injuries are at the highest level of the spinal cord and leave those afflicted with extensive paralysis below the neck — typically such individuals are left with volitional control of just the head, neck, and in some cases shoulder shrug. Individuals with high tetraplegia are usually totally dependent on others for all aspects of care, and traditional rehabilitation procedures result in limited functional improvement [1].

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