Therapeutic proteins can be difficult to work with due to the fact that each protein has properties and functions that are unique. These exclusive properties are in part due to the proteins three-dimensional shape (secondary and tertiary structure). This shape is determined by bends in the amino acid sequence generated by electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions between neighboring amino acids. These bonding interactions are weak and can be severed by chemical or physical forces. Thus, therapeutic proteins can be denatured during manufacture and by methods used to deliver them to the body.

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