Urethral dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injury, vaginal childbirth, and pelvic trauma. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the involuntary loss of urine due to the inability of the urethral sphincter to maintain a tight seal during the storage phase, and is a disease that physically and emotionally affects 25 million American women annually [1]. There are currently several treatments for SUI including surgery, Kegel exercises, and electrical stimulation, each accompanied by limited effectiveness and/or complications [2–3]. We believe that regenerative medicine techniques applied to the native urethra may aid in improving the function and support of the diseased urethra. Thus, we have begun the development of a tissue engineered urethral wrap (TEUW) for placement as a cuff around the native urethra and integration with the host tissue. The goal of this work was to determine optimized culture conditions for TEUWs and to determine if their use in vivo improves urethral function.

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