Typical transport packages used in Germany are equipped with wooden impact limiting devices. In this paper we give an overview of the latest status regarding the development of a finite element material model for the crush of spruce wood. Although the crush of wood — mainly in longitudinal direction — is a phenomenon governed by macroscopic fracture and failure of wood fibres, we smear fracture and failure mechanisms over the continuous volume. In a first step we altered an existing LS-DYNA material model for foams, which considers an ellipse shaped yield surface written in terms of the first two stress invariants. The evolution of the yield surface in the existing model depends on the volumetric strain only. For the use with spruce wood, we modified the existing material model to consider the deviatoric strain for the evolution of the yield surface as well. This is in accordance with the results of crush tests with spruce wood specimens, where the crushing deformation was rather deviatoric for uniaxial stress states and rather volumetric for multiaxial stress states. We rate the basic idea of this approach to be reasonable, though other problems exist regarding the shape of the yield surface and the assumption of isotropic material properties. Therefore we developed a new transversal isotropic material model with two main directions, which considers different yield curves according to the multiaxiality of the stress state via a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The results show the ability to reproduce the basic strength characteristics of spruce wood. Nevertheless, problems with regularization etc. show that additional investigations are necessary.
Development of a Material Model for the Crush of Spruce Wood
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Neumann, M, Eisenacher, G, Schönfelder, T, & Wille, F. "Development of a Material Model for the Crush of Spruce Wood." Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Volume 7: Operations, Applications and Components. Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA. July 16–20, 2017. V007T07A037. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2017-65697
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