Owing to the demands for larger-capacity reactor vessels in petroleum plants and higher temperature processes for the upgrade of heavy oil, enhanced 2.25Cr-1Mo, 2.25Cr-1Mo-V and 3Cr-1Mo-V steels, which suit both high temperatures and pressure operations, have been developed and used for heavy-wall pressure vessels since the 1990s. 2.25Cr-1Mo-V steel, which has very special mechanical properties, resistant to both hydrogen attack and embrittlement under high temperatures and pressure environments in particular, has been used since 2000. The specifications for 2.25Cr-1Mo-V steel pressure vessels, such as ASME Sec. VIII and API RP 934-A, have been established and reviewed to enhance the contents [1–2].
In this report, the transition of materials, the welding techniques for hydrocracking reactors and 2.25Cr-1Mo-V welding materials are introduced. Particularly, for these welding materials, in order to improve the creep rupture and temper embrittlement properties, the effectiveness of precipitates is discussed. It was found that fine carbide (MC) in crystal grains improves creep rupture lifetime and MC at the prior austenite (γ) grain boundaries inhibits temper embrittlement caused by the segregation of impurities.