The large thickness of most of the heavy components in Pressurized Water Reactors often lead to use multi-pass welding processes. Distortion tolerance and maximal residual stress requirements if any are difficult to fulfill by simply adjusting welding processes with a trial-and-error procedure. This is the main reason why AREVA has developed a robust methodology to perform welding numerical simulations leading to have a better understanding of the phenomena involved during the process.
The present work details a 3D method successfully used to simulate a peripheral adapter J-Groove attachment weld in a vessel head  and compares the results to those obtained with a 3D simplified method.
The first method is the state of the art method use for solving Computational Welding Mechanics problems. It is a transient “step by step” 3D simulation using an equivalent moving heat source as input. The second method is a simplified one. First, an equivalent thermal cycle is obtained from a 3D stationary thermal simulation. This thermal cycle is representative of the welding parameters. This thermal cycle is then prescribed to all nodes in a given sector of the weld. This simplified method is called “prescribed thermal cycle” method.
A comparison between displacements and stresses obtained by both methods is completed in order to validate the hypothesis of the simplified approach. The results show a good agreement between the transient “step by step” method and the simplified one. Furthermore, the simplified method speeds up the calculations by a factor of 10. These performances offer the possibility to simulate a multi-pass welding of Pressurized Water Reactor components in a limited calculation time, providing an efficient decision making tool for engineering purpose.
This work is the result of a fruitful collaboration between AREVA and ESI-FRANCE. All the computations are performed with SYSWELD™ software .