Bends are an integral part of a piping system. Because of the ability to ovalize and warp they offer more flexibility when compared to straight pipes. Piping Code ASME B31.3  provides flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for pipe bends. Like any other piping component, one of the failure mechanisms of a pipe bend is gross plastic deformation. In this paper, plastic collapse load of pipe bends have been analyzed for various bend parameters (bend parameter = ) under internal pressure and out-of-plane bending moment for various bend angles using both small and large deformation theories. FE code ABAQUS version 6.9EF-1 has been used for the analyses. The goal of the paper is to develop an expression for plastic collapse moment for a bend using plastic work curvature method when the bend is subjected to out-of-plane bending moment and internal pressure as a function of bend angle and bend parameter.
Effect of Bend Angle on Gross Plastic Deformation of Pipe Bends for Out-of-Plane Bending: A Study Using Plastic Work Curvature Method
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Bhattacharya, A, Bapat, S, Patel, H, Patel, S, & Cross, MP. "Effect of Bend Angle on Gross Plastic Deformation of Pipe Bends for Out-of-Plane Bending: A Study Using Plastic Work Curvature Method." Proceedings of the ASME 2016 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Volume 3: Design and Analysis. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. July 17–21, 2016. V003T03A079. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2016-63153
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