A novel Steel Concrete Composite Vessel (SCCV) was designed and engineered for stationary high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage applications. SCCV comprises four major innovations: (1) flexible modular design for storage stations for scalability to meet different storage pressure and capacity needs, flexibility for cost optimization, and system reliability and safety, (2) composite storage vessel design and construction with an inner steel vessel encased in a pre-stressed and reinforced outer concrete shellshell, (3) layered steel vessel wall and vent holes to address the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) problem by design, and (4) integrated sensor system to monitor the structural integrity and operation status of the storage system. Together, these innovations form an integrated approach to make the SCCV cost competitive and inherently safe for stationary high-pressure hydrogen storage services.
A demonstration SCCV has been designed and fabricated to demonstrate its technical feasibility. Capable of storing approximately 89 kg of gaseous hydrogen at 6250 psi (430 bar), the demonstration vessel was designed to include all major features of SCCV design and fabricated with today’s manufacturing technologies and code/standard requirements. Two crucial tests have been performed on this demonstration vessel. A hydro-test was successfully carried out to 8950 psi per ASME VIII-2 requirements. The cyclic hydrogen pressure test between 2000 psi and 6000 psi is currently being performed to validate its use for high-pressure hydrogen storage. Multiple sensors, such as pressure sensors and strain gages, were incorporated in the demonstration SCCV to collect information to validate the design and operation of SCCV. Key design parameters and test data on its performance are summarized in this paper.