NIST in Boulder Colorado investigated the correlations between impact test results obtained from standard, full-size Charpy specimens (CVN) and specimens with reduced thickness (sub-size Charpy specimens, SCVN) or reduced or scaled cross-section dimensions (miniaturized Charpy specimens, MCVN). A database of instrumented impact test results was generated from four line pipe steels, two quenched and tempered alloy steels, and an 18 Ni maraging steel. Correlations between specimen types were established and compared with previously published relationships, considering absorbed energy, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, and upper shelf energy. Acceptable correlations were found for the different parameters, even though the uncertainty of predictions appears exacerbated by the expected significant experimental scatter.
Furthermore, we report on the development of MCVN specimens for the indirect verification of small-scale pendulum machines (with potential energies between 15 J and 50 J), which cannot be verified with full-size verification specimens. Small-scale pendulum machines can now be verified at room temperature with certified reference specimens of KLST type (3 mm × 4 mm × 27 mm), supplied by NIST at three certified absorbed energy levels (low energy, 1.59 J; high-energy, 5.64 J; super-high energy, 10.05 J). These specimens can also be used to verify the performance of instrumented Charpy strikers through certified maximum force values. Certified reference values for both absorbed energy and maximum force were established by means of an interlaboratory comparison (Round-Robin), which involved nine qualified and experienced international laboratories.