In this paper, elbow elements in commercial finite element software ABAQUS are reviewed and two commonly used elements, ELBOW31 (2-node, linear) and ELBOW32 (3-node, quadratic), are numerically tested for two Benchmark examples: a cantilever pipe and an in-plane bending pipe bend. Two main issues are studied through the numerical tests: (1) The effect of the element size and the number of ovalization modes chosen for computation; (2) The accuracy of computed deformation and stresses. To gain an insight into the behavior of these elements, a comparison against published results by experiment and computations using elbow elements in software ADINA and MARC, as well as computations using ABAQUS shell elements, is conducted. It is shown that: (i) these elements predict a good peak stress solution with a reasonably coarse mesh and 6 ovalization modes; (ii) the ovalization and the distribution of stresses predicted around the pipe section show, though using a relatively dense mesh, a notable difference as compared to solutions computed by ABAQUS shell elements; (iii) the ADINA elbow element seems to provide, though using a very coarse mesh, a solution closest to analytic and experimental results. It is concluded that there are great needs for in-depth studies on elbow elements regarding reliability and accuracy issues.
On Pipe Elbow Elements in ABAQUS and Benchmark Tests
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Zeng, L, Jansson, LG, & Venev, Y. "On Pipe Elbow Elements in ABAQUS and Benchmark Tests." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Volume 3: Design and Analysis. Anaheim, California, USA. July 20–24, 2014. V003T03A036. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2014-28920
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