Some flaws may appear in metal components, in the weld region, and more especially in the case of electron beam girth weld in the slope area of the process (start and stop of the welding operation). These initial flaws can growth with delay even without any external loads. Indeed close to the junction, the material undergoes the combination of high tensile residual stresses due to welding operation and the presence of hydrogen brought by manufacturing process. Hydrogen assisted cracking is then suspected to explain the origin of crack growth through hydrogen embrittlement of the base metal.
To understand by numerical modeling, at least qualitatively, the scenario of appearance of such cracks and their evolution, without any external load or under pressure load, the proposed approach consists first in simulating the welding process and its consequences on residual stress distribution and hydrogen concentrations . The hydrogen diffusion computation is pursued after the welding operation simulation in order to highlight the most critical moment at which macroscopic defects may appear. Then, a macroscopic defect is created in the so determined critical zone, the stability of which is studied by estimating the energy release rate at the crack front and by comparing these values with experimental data such as the critical energy release rate at initiation and the tearing resistance curves which may depend on the hydrogen content. So, it is numerically possible to propagate the defect in the time, considering hydrogen diffusion and residual stress rebalancing, by successive crack front definition performed as the crack tip region exceeds the critical energy release rate . Finally, the evolution of the defect is estimated in the same way under pressure test loading conditions. Results and discussions are presented to propose an engineering approach for the design assessment of such specific weld junctions with a low and hydrogen dependant toughness.