The numerical application of solid-state phase transformation kinetics relating to conventional welding of ferritic steels is presented. The inclusion of such kinetics in weld models is shown to be necessary for capturing the post-weld residual stress field. To this end, a comparison of two approaches is outlined: a semi-empirical approach that uses thermodynamic transformation kinetics to predict phase morphology; and a fully empirical approach that directly links local material temperature to the present constituent phase(s). The semi-empirical analysis begins with prediction of TTT diagrams using thermodynamic principles for ferritic steels. The data is then converted to CCT diagrams using the Scheil-Avrami additive rule, including austenite grain growth kinetics. This information is used to predict the phases present under varying peak temperatures and cooling rates. In the fully empirical approach, dilatometric experiments of steel samples are performed during heating to simulate expected welding conditions. The constitutive response of the sample is then used as input for the subsequent numerical weld analyses. Input derived from each technique is transferred into weld models developed using the Abaqus finite element package. Model validation is carried out by direct comparison with neutron diffraction residual stress measurements on two beams of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1 steel subjected to autogenous beam TIG welds under varying torch speeds, heat input and preheat conditions.

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