In this paper, the authors investigate situations where flanges listed in ASME B31.3 may cause construction issues, due to interference between the assembly tools and the adjacent nuts. A variety of different tools that may be used for assembly have been considered. ASME B16.47 Series A and B, and AWWA C207 flanges have been evaluated, and tabulated into a series of charts to assist designers in avoiding problem flanges, or to identify situations where designers may need to consider modifying the bolting design to facilitate assembly. Changes between previous and current editions of AWWA C207, which may have exacerbated the problem have been identified, and evaluated, to assist owners and designers in issues that may arise with existing installed flanges, and to highlight several flanges which may have been used satisfactorily in the past, but may cause issues in new construction.

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