Flaw indications have been found in some dissimilar metal nozzle to stainless steel piping welds in pressurized water reactors (PWR) throughout the world. The nozzle welds usually involve welding ferritic (often A508) nozzles to 304/316 stainless steel pipe using Alloy 182/82 weld metal. Due to an unexpected aging issue with the weld metal, the weld becomes susceptible to a form of corrosion cracking referred to as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). It can occur if the temperature is high enough (usually >300C) and the water chemistry in the PWR is typical of operating plants. This paper represents one of a series of papers which examine the propensity for cracking in a particular operating PWR in the UK. This paper represents an examination of the weld residual stress distributions which occur in four different size nozzles in the plant. Companion papers in this conference examine crack growth and PWSCC mitigation efforts related to this plant. British Energy (BE) has developed a work program to assess the possible impact of PWSCC on dissimilar metal welds in the primary circuit of the Sizewell ‘B’ pressurized water reactor. This effort has included the design and manufacture of representative PWR safety/relief valve nozzle welds both with and without a full structural weld overlay, multiple residual stress measurements on both mock-ups using the deep hole and incremental deep hole methods, and a number of finite element weld residual stress simulations of both the mock-ups and equivalent plant welds. This work is summarized in companion papers [1–3]. Here, the detailed weld residual stress predictions for these nozzles are summarized. The weld residual stresses in a PWR spray nozzle, safety/relief nozzle, surge nozzle, and finally a steam generator hot-leg nozzle are predicted here using an axis-symmetric computational weld solution process. The residual stresses are documented and these feed into a natural crack growth analysis provided in a companion PVP 2010-25162 paper . The solutions are made using several different constitutive models: kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening, and a mixed hardening model. Discussion will be provided as to the appropriateness of the constitutive model for multi-pass DM weld modeling. In addition, the effect of including or neglecting the post-weld heat treatment process, which typically occurs after the buttering process in a DM weld, is presented. During operation the DM welds in a PWR experience temperatures in excess of 300°C. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the three materials, particularly the higher CTE in the stainless steel, affects the stresses at operating temperature. The K-weld geometry used in the steam generator nozzles in this plant combines with CTE mis-match effects to result in service stresses somewhat different from V-weld groove cases.
- Pressure Vessels and Piping Division
Summary of Weld Residual Stress Analyses for Dissimilar Metal Weld Nozzles
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Brust, FW, Zhang, T, Shim, D, Kalyanam, S, Wilkowski, G, Smith, M, & Goodfellow, A. "Summary of Weld Residual Stress Analyses for Dissimilar Metal Weld Nozzles." Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division/K-PVP Conference. ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference: Volume 6, Parts A and B. Bellevue, Washington, USA. July 18–22, 2010. pp. 1521-1529. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2010-26106
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