The fabrication of near net shape powder metal (PM) components by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has been an important manufacturing technology for steel and stainless steel alloys since about 1985. The manufacturing process involves inert gas atomization of powder, 3D CAD capsule design, sheet metal capsule fabrication and densification by HIP in very large pressure vessels. Since 1985, several thousand tonnes of parts have been produced. The major applications are found in the oil and gas industry especially in offshore applications, the industrial power generation industry, and traditional engineering industries. Typically, the components replace castings, forgings and fabricated parts and are produced in high alloy grades such as martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic/austenitic) stainless steels and nickel based superalloys. The application of PM/HIP near net shapes to pump barrels for medium to high pressure use has a number of advantages compared to the traditional forging and welding approach. First, the need for machining of the components is reduced to a minimum and welding during final assembly is reduced substantially. Mechanical properties of the PM/HIP parts are isotropic and equal to the best forged properties in the flow direction. This derives from the fine microstructure using powder powder and the uniform structure from the HIP process. Furthermore, when using the PM HIP process the parts are produced near net shape with supports, nozzles and flanges integrated. This significantly reduces manufacturing lead-time and gives greater design flexibility which improves cost for the final component. The PM HIP near net shape route has received approval from ASTM, NACE and API for specific steel, stainless steel and nickel base alloys. This paper reviews the manufacturing sequence for PM near net shapes and discusses the details of several successful applications. The application of the PM/HIP process to high pressure pump barrels is highlighted.

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