The concept of risk evaluation exists for centuries. It is present everywhere, in the economy, in the industry and in our everyday life. In the decades past, the role of risk concept is increasing continuously, which is due to a lot of reasonable reasons. The paper shows, why the risk-based applications are extended in more and more branches of industry. This likes to be a “communication interface” between the “economists” and “engineers”. This new improvement in inpection planning involves numerous benefits, but raises some questions, e.g. from the regulatory point of view. What are needed to implement the risk-based strategy and for what can we expected as the result of it? The paper shows a solution of the implementation of the risk-based methodologies, which main principles can be applied in the most fields of industry. The main aim is to focus the maintenance and inspection efforts on the highest risk elements, but how can we establish an adequate order between them, on the basis of risk? Are there any standards or guidelines for risk-based strategies in the different industries? The paper tries to summarize the current state of risk-based approaches, considering the benefits and difficulties of it. The paper concentrates on the nuclear industry, which is one of the most controversial industries, since the whole society is divided on this issue. The concept of risk is unthinkable in this field for a lot of people, including some regulatory bodies. As opposed to it, in some countries there are an acceptable process is the risk-based managing of nuclear power plants. What is the cause of this sharp difference? The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the state of the art in this field and to show the trends in the development of risk-based approaches.

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