It is now accepted practice in the commercial nuclear power industry to numerically simulate the residual stresses developed during welding of bimetallic piping components. A common example is the Alloy 82/182 shop weld between a low alloy steel nozzle and a stainless steel safe end. Piping is attached to the nozzle safe end by a separate girth butt weld in the field. The safe end to pipe weld influences stresses in the nozzle to safe end weld only for relatively short safe ends. Alloy 600 base metal material and its associated welds are susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) at elevated levels of stress. It is therefore necessary to model each step of the fabrication process to capture the path dependent accumulation of stress and strain in the welded components, and to simulate the pre-service test loads and operating temperature and pressure loads. The fabrication process includes the build up of butter material on the nozzle prior to heat treatment and the deposition of weld metal in a single V-groove between the butter and safe end. This is followed by one or more repair welds to remove welding defects. The welded component is then subjected to a shop hydrostatic test pressure equal to 125 percent of the design pressure. Following several heatup and cooldown cycles to simulate “shakedown” of pre-service stresses, stresses in the vicinity of the weld are determined at operating conditions of temperature and pressure in order to access the susceptibility of the weld and butter to PWSCC. This paper discusses the analytical methodology used to numerically simulate welding residual stresses using the ANSYS general purpose computer code. The method is then applied to two-dimensional axisymmetric welding simulations, which are adequate to investigate most girth butt weld piping components, although it may be necessary to make conservative assumptions regarding weld repair configurations. Numerical results are used to characterize the effects of weld repair, pre-service loads, and cyclic loading on the final state of operating stresses for sustained loading conditions. The analysis method is validated using results from large scale tests performed by the European Commission Joint Research Centre as part of its Assessment of Aged Piping Dissimilar Metal Weld (ADIMEW) project. Residual stresses are predicted for a ferritic-to-austenitic dissimilar metal weld mockup and compared against results from neutron diffraction measurements.

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