The American Standards Association (ASA) B31.3-1959 Petroleum Refinery Piping Code [1] grew out of an ASA document that addressed all manner of fluid conveying piping systems. ASA B31.3 was created long before widespread engineering use of computer “mainframes” or even before the inception of piping stress analysis software. From its inception until recent times, the B31.3 Process Piping Code [2] (hereafter referred to as the “Code”) has remained ambiguous in several areas. This paper describes some of these subtle concepts that are included in the Code 2006 Edition for Appendix S Example S3. This paper discusses: • the effect of moment reversal in determining the largest Displacement Stress Range, • the impact of the average axial stress caused by displacement strains on the Example S3 piping system and the augmenting of the Code Eq. (17) thereto, • a brief comparison of Example S3 results to that of the operating stress range evaluated in accordance with the 2006 Code Appendix P Alternative Requirements.

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