Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Flow-induced vibration excitation forces can cause tube motion that will result in long-term fretting-wear or fatigue. Detailed flow and vibration excitation force measurements in tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross flow are required to understand the underlying vibration excitation mechanisms. Some of this work has already been done. The distributions of both void fraction and bubble velocity in rotated-triangular tube bundles were obtained. Somewhat unexpected but significant quasi-periodic forces in both the drag and lift directions were measured. The present work aims at understanding the nature of such unexpected drag and lift quasi-periodic forces. An experimental program was undertaken with a rotated-triangular array of cylinders subjected to air/water flow to simulate two-phase mixtures. Fiber-optic probes were developed to measure local void fraction. Both the dynamic lift and drag forces were measured with a strain gage instrumented cylinder. The investigation showed that the quasi-periodic drag and lift forces are generated by different mechanisms that have not been observed so far. The quasi-periodic drag forces appear related to the momentum flux fluctuations in the main flow path between the cylinders. The quasi-periodic lift forces, on the other hand, are mostly correlated to oscillations in the wake of the cylinders. The relationships between the lift or drag forces and the dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow are established through fluid mechanics momentum equations. The quasi-periodic lift forces are related to local void fraction measurements in the unsteady wake area between upstream and downstream cylinders. The quasi-periodic drag forces correlate well with similar measurements in the main flow stream between cylinders.

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