This paper proposes the universal J-integral for correlating multiaxial low cycle fatigue lives, utilizing the crack opening displacement approach. The universal J-integral is a function of Young’s modulus, yield stress, strain biaxiality and specimen geometry, so that it is not necessary to conduct multiaxial low cycle fatigue tests to determine the universal J-integral. To derive the universal J-integral, J-integral for a biaxially loaded Mode I crack was equated with the equivalent strain based on crack opening displacement (COD strain). The COD strain is a parameter to express the strain intensity ahead of a Mode I crack subjected to biaxial strains, normal and parallel to the crack. The J-integral was shown to be a suitable parameter for correlating crack propagation rates in the biaxial straining conditions. The J-integral was extended to a parameter, named the universal J-integral, to correlate multiaxial low cycle fatigue lives, taking account of the material dependency. The universal J-integral successfully correlated the multiaxial low cycle fatigue lives of type 304 stainless steel, Cr-Mo-V steel, Inconel 738 LC nickel base superalloy and Sn-37Pb eutectic solder universally within a factor of three scatter band independent on the material.

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