Thermal distortion and residual stress are essentially generated by welding and it is well known that they affect the performance of welded structures such as brittle fracture, fatigue, buckling deformation, and stress-corrosion cracking. Welding distortions and residual stresses can be possible controlled and reduced by using some countermeasures. Not only thermal stress behavior but also prediction of microstructural phase during weld heat cycles are very important. High strength steels or martensitic stainless steels are used in a lot of power plant components, and the effect of phase transformation on mechanical behavior during welding in these steels becomes much larger than that of mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. Simultaneous simulation between thermal stress and microstructure during welding should be necessary in a precise evaluation. Analytical method and several applications to actual components are introduced in order to emphasize the effect considering microstructure on weld residual stress analysis.

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