In this paper the response of internally pressurized pipe elbows under bending loads (in-plane and out-of-plane) is examined. The investigation is conducted through advanced finite element analysis tools, supported by real-scale test data. The numerical results are successfully compared with the experimental measurements. In addition, a parametric study is conducted, which is aimed at investigating the effects of the diameter-to-thickness ratio on the ultimate capacity of 90 deg elbows, focusing on the failure mode (buckling or flattening) and the maximum bending strength. The effects of moderate pressure levels on the ultimate moment and the failure mode are examined extensively.

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