The Isis-3D computational fluid dynamics/radiation heat transfer code was developed to simulate heat transfer from large fires. It models liquid fuel evaporation, fuel vapor and oxygen transport, chemical reaction and heat release, soot and intermediate species formation/destruction, diffuse radiation within the fire, and view factor radiation from the fire edge to nearby objects and the surroundings. Reaction rate and soot radiation parameters in Isis-3D have been selected based on experimental data. One-dimensional transient conduction modules calculate the response of simple objects engulfed in and near the flames. In this work, Isis-3D calculations were performed to simulate the conditions of three experiments that measured the temperature response of a 4.66-m-diameter culvert pipe located at the leeward edge of 18.9-m and 9.45-m diameter pool fires in crosswinds with average speeds of 2.0, 4.6 and 9.5 m/s. The measured wind conditions were used to formulate time-dependent velocity boundary conditions for a rectangular Isis-3D domain with 16,500 nodes. Isis-3D accurately calculated characteristics of the time-dependent temperature distributions in all three experiments. Accelerated simulations were also performed in which the pipe specific heat was reduced compared to the measured value by a factor of four. This artificially increased the speed at which the pipe temperature rose and allowed the simulated fire duration to be reduced by a factor of four. A 700 sec fire with moderately unsteady wind conditions was accurately simulated in 10 hours on a 2.4 GHz LINUX workstation with 0.5 GB of RAM.

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