The excitation and propagation characteristics of guided wave torsional flexural mode are exploited in this paper. Theoretical computations and experiments are carried out to show the angular profiles of the torsional flexural modes propagation characteristics and the subsequent natural focusing effects. Because of such inherent advantages as less mode conversion and high sensitivity to axial defects, torsional modes and focusing possibilities have great potential in pipe inspection. By combining longitudinal and torsional modes, defect characterizations including defect size, shape etc. can be determined by truly three-dimensional guided wave pipe inspection.

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