In bolt assembly process of pipe flange connections, repeated bolt-up operations are conducted to achieve uniform preloads. Nobody, however, knows how many times of bolt-up operation is required to achieve uniform preloads. It is important for practicing workers to know the number of bolt-up operations. The number of bolt-up operation required to get uniform bolt preloads depends on the nominal diameter of pipe flange, the number of bolts, the types of gasket, etc. In this study, systematical finite element analyses of bolt-up operation are conducted for JPI class 150in and 300in flanges with a compressed asbestos sheet gasket. The number of bolt-up operations required to achieve uniform preloads is estimated for each pipe flange connection.

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