Type IV damage has been found at several ultra-supercritical (USC) plants that used high-chromium martensitic steels in Japan, and the assessment of the remaining life of the steels is important for electric power companies. The assessment of the remaining life needs long-term creep data for over 10 years, but such data are limited. We have attempted to assess the remaining life by creep tests and by microstructural observation of Grade 91 steels welded pipes which were used in USC plants for over 10 years. Following the results of microstructural observation of USC plant pipes, we find that microstructures, especially distribution of MX precipitates, have large effect on the creep life of Grade 91 steels.

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