Design-by-Rule codes (i.e. ASME Section I, EN 12952) already exist for elevated temperature (creep) design and have been successfully used for decades; however, there is motivation to optimize designs, or to assess non-standard ones. Limit Load Analysis (LLA) is the simplest advanced analysis method, and a powerful and widely-used tool for establishing compliance with required pressure part safety margins for operation at temperatures below the creep range. However, there is no direct relationship between LLA and elevated temperature allowable stresses and failure modes, such that the basic LLA methods or results must be manipulated in some way to be generally meaningful. With this in mind, review of proposed elevated temperature LLA methods (which are discussed in Part 2 of this work) by comparison to detailed transient inelastic finite element analysis allows for rigorous assessment of simplifications. Specification of an elevated temperature material model that is consistent with traditional allowable stresses for the detailed analysis is described in this paper (Part 1), and the material model and simplified methods are applied to the case of a typical steam header in the next (Part 2).
Paper published with permission.