The lack of efficient and viable pathways for manure management and disposal in various animal waste sectors has led to growing concerns about GHG emissions and increased nutrient levels in water bodies, resulting in ecological damage and health concerns. In response, we have investigated the different thermochemical conversion techniques of cow manure at eight different heating rates (5–40°C/min) to obtain optimum operating conditions to keep the reaction self-sustainable, stable, and fast compared to the anaerobic digestion that is slow, resulting in significant carbon loss to CO2 and possible leaching.

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