The variability and intermittency of the output from wind and solar generating facilities does not allow for consistent predictions of power generation that electric grid operators can use to ensure reliable and resilient electric service to meet the system demand. Dispatchability is commonly considered as the extent to which the resource (i.e., demand or supply resource) can be relied on to “follow a target” in relation to its load or generation. Variable renewable energy (VRE) or intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) are renewable energy sources that are not dispatchable due to their fluctuating and intermittent nature, such as wind power and solar power, as opposed to dispatchable renewable energy sources such as hydroelectric, or fossil and nuclear baseloaded plants.

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