The incorrect design and/or poor location of service connections on steam surface condensers can cause serious, often catastrophic, failures due to the inadequate dispersion of drain fluid energies. These failures often occur during a number of different operational scenarios, which in turn can cause condenser tube and/or structural failures, both of which can lead to the de-rating of steam turbines, or even complete unit shut downs. This paper includes the latest thermal and mechanical design guidelines and general considerations for the proper design, and location, of various types of service connections on steam surface condensers. The paper also includes considerations for a number of special cases; such as steam bypass, deaerating drains, heater drains, etc. Furthermore, examples of common operational issues are included, together with recommended modifications and upgrades to address typical service connection failures on existing condensers. A Case Study and some examples are also referenced.

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