Wind is always blowing somewhere. From this perspective, a logical hypothesis is that a base load generator might be created by using long distance transmission to connect distant wind farms. This paper tests that hypothesis by putting numbers to it. It is generally accepted that geographic diversity has a smoothing effect on wind fluctuations for cumulative production . This paper addresses the question of whether or not geographic diversity provides system capacity as well. A scenario of interest is the interconnection of wind farms on the East Coast (PJM Interconnection) with wind farms in the Midwest (MISO, the Midcontinent Independent System Operator). Wind is characterized by the Cumulative Distribution Function (DF). Effective Load Carrying Capacity (ELCC) is a metric that defines system capacity, the load that a system can deliver at an acceptable level of reliability. This paper compares standalone wind on PJM with standalone wind on MISO and with standalone wind for interconnected PJM + MISO. A fourth comparison shows the theoretical limit, what could be achieved if wind from PJM and MISO were independent of each other. This analysis quantifies the capacity benefits of long distance transmission.
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Justification for Long Distance Transmission
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Smith, N, & Pavlak, A. "Justification for Long Distance Transmission." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Power Conference. Volume 2: Simple and Combined Cycles; Advanced Energy Systems and Renewables (Wind, Solar and Geothermal); Energy Water Nexus; Thermal Hydraulics and CFD; Nuclear Plant Design, Licensing and Construction; Performance Testing and Performance Test Codes; Student Paper Competition. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. July 28–31, 2014. V002T14A004. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/POWER2014-32144
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