For the majority of cooling towers installed, of which there are greater than half a million installed in the U.S., tower design uses direct evaporative cooler technology where an ideally enthalpy-neutral process cools the process water stream to a temperature above the ambient wet bulb. This ambient wet bulb temperature is the limiting factor for the process cooling. As such the energy-water connection is clear, these cooling towers are direct consumers of treated water and their cooling performance is intimately tied to the process efficiency.

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